The end of Daniel 11 has been a challenge to understand, for me and for a lot of others. I recently came across an article written by Daniel Morais at Revelation Revolution concerning the final 10 verses of Daniel 11, and I found his arguments very convincing for their fulfillment during the Julio-Claudian dynasty (covering the reigns of Julius Caesar, Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero). It’s a long read, but an informative one:
Every Prophecy Fulfilled! Daniel Chapter 11:35-45 Commentary: Summary and Highlights
In the following commentary on Daniel chapter 11, every prophecy is explained and found to be literally fulfilled and the identity of the willful king and the king of the north is revealed. Modern scholars generally do not believe in miracles; therefore, the books of the Bible are often dated after all the alleged predictions had already come to pass. This is not possible with the Book of Daniel. Daniel was indisputably written long before the fulfillment of the predictions at the end of this chapter. Throughout Daniel 11, the king of the Seleucids is the king of the north; the king of the Ptolemies is the king of the south; and the willful king is Caesar. Caesar and Rome began to be worshipped in the imperial cult after the death of the first Caesar in fulfillment of Daniel 11:36: “He will exalt and magnify himself above every god . . .” In Daniel 11:35-45, the king of the north is Anthony, and the king of the south is Cleopatra. Anthony, the king of the north, and Cleopatra, the king of the south, united to fight the willful king, Caesar Augustus, with “chariots and cavalry and a great fleet of ships” in the Battle of Actium in fulfillment of Daniel 11:40. After the Battle of Actium, Edom, Moab and the leaders of Ammon were delivered from Caesar Augustus’ hand; and Caesar Augustus, the willful king, subjugated Egypt and Libya and captured and enslaved the Nubians of Napata while bringing the wealth of Egypt to Rome in fulfillment of Daniel 11:41-43. Years later in fulfillment of v. 44, both Israel to the east and Gaul to the north revolted against Rome. Enraged, Caesar, the willful king, dispatched the Roman Legions. As the Roman Army pitched its tents outside of Jerusalem, the beautiful holy mountain, Caesar, the willful king, was declared an enemy of the state and died with “no one [to] help him” in fulfillment of Daniel 11:44. For a detailed explanation of the fulfillment of every verse see the following commentary on Daniel chapter 11:35-45.
Who was the Willful King, and Who was the King of the North?
Every Prophecy Fulfilled! Daniel Chapter 11 Explained Intro: Modern Scholars generally do not believe in Miracles; therefore, the Books of the Bible are often dated after all the Alleged Predictions had come to pass.
Many historians try to explain away the prophetic accuracy of the Book of Daniel by theorizing that this book must have been written during the second century B.C., a time in which most of Daniel’s prophecies had been fulfilled. Daniel 11:2-35 lists a chronological sequence of events spanning 360 years from the sixth to the second century B.C.–without having made a single mistake. In these verses, Daniel describes the rise of the Greek Empire, its subsequent partition into four parts, followed by a mysteriously accurate description of the foreign relations between two of its divisions: the Seleucid and Ptolemaic Empires of Syria and Egypt respectively. In Daniel 11, the king of the Seleucids is labeled the king of the north, and the king of the Ptolemies is called the king of the south. In this chapter, Daniel describes a chronological series of wars, treaties and marriages between these two warring empires. Highlighting significant aspects of the reign of each king, the prophet proceeds with his chronology often without specifying the death of one king and the rise of another. Each king and his successor are simply called the king of the north or the king of the south. This lack of specificity has led to the notion that the willful king of vs. 36-43 is Antiochus Epiphanies, the king of the north, the same king described earlier in v. 32.
Every Prophecy Fulfilled! Daniel Chapter 11 Explained Intro: Is the Willful King Antiochus Epiphanes, the King of the North?
From v. 21-32, Daniel’s description of Antiochus Epiphanes, the king of the north, is accurate by all accounts. However, from v. 36 to the end of the chapter, the king known as the willful king mentioned here does not fit what is known of the king of the north. This fact has led some historians to suggest that the Book of Daniel may have been written by an editor just prior to the death of Antiochus Epiphanes. According to this theory, the author of the Book of Daniel recorded a history from v. 1-35 accounting for the accuracy of this portion of the text. Then from v. 36 to the end of the chapter, the editor of the book attempted to accurately predict the fate of Antiochus Epiphanes and, as expected, failed.[i] But what if the willful king of vs. 36-43 was never intended to be the king of the north? In v. 35 the prophet writes:
35Some of the wise will stumble, so that they may be refined, purified and made spotless until the time of the end, for it will still come at the appointed time.
Every Prophecy Fulfilled! Daniel Chapter 11:35 Commentary: The Reference to the Time of the End in v. 35 implies a shift from Antiochus Epiphanes and the Greek Empire to Rome, the Final Empire of Daniel’s Visions.
This verse seems to imply a transition. Does this verse suggest a shift between the struggle with Greece and the rise of Rome? In Daniel 2 and Daniel 7, Daniel predicts four Gentile Empires would rule Israel before the establishment of the kingdom of God. Antiochus Epiphanes was a Greek king and thus ruled during the third empire in Daniel’s visions. The reference to the time of the end in the above verse implies a shift in focus away from the Greek Empire to Rome, the fourth and final Gentile Empire of Daniel’s visions. Because Rome was the last kingdom to rule over Israel before the establishment of the kingdom of God, the rise of the Roman Empire is labeled “the time of the end.” The NRSV says that the wise shall fall and be purified “until the time of the end, for there is still an interval until the time appointed.” This translation explicitly indicates that there shall be an interval between v. 35 and v. 36. There are approximately 130 years between the war with Antiochus and the rise of Rome.[ii] During this time, Rome replaced Greece as the dominant world power. This large a gap between verses is not without precedence. There is a similar 130 year interval between vs. 2 and 3 corresponding with another shift in power, this time from Medo-Persia to Greece.
As stated earlier, throughout chapter 11, Daniel describes the life of a specific king and seamlessly moves on to that of his successor usually without ever having specified to his reader the passage of a scepter. Thus it is not surprising that no explicit indication of a change in authority is made between vs. 35 and 36. Though no unequivocal change in authority is specified in these two verses, there does seem to be an implicit transition in v. 35. It is also interesting to note that nowhere throughout the remainder of the chapter is the willful king of v. 36 unambiguously called the king of the north. But if this king was not Antiochus Epiphanes, then who was the willful king of v. 36? In the next verse, Daniel begins to describe this king:
36“The king will do as he pleases. He will exalt and magnify himself above every god and will say unheard-of things against the God of gods. He will be successful until the time of wrath is completed for what has been determined must take place. 37He will show no regard for the gods of his fathers or for the one desired by women, nor will he regard any god, but will exalt himself above them all.
Every Prophecy Fulfilled! Daniel Chapter 11:36-37 Commentary: The Willful King is Caesar, the Beast of Revelation.
The willful king is the beast of Revelation. As is discussed in detail Revelation 13: A Preterist Commentary-The Antichrist Revealed!, the beast is a metaphor for Rome and its Caesars. During the time of the end, Rome was ruled by a series of kings who in many ways were messianic doppelgangers. There was a legend circulating throughout Rome that Augustus’ mother, after having fallen asleep in the temple of Apollo, had a dream of a serpent entering her womb. Nine months after this vision, she gave birth to Augustus. Years after Augustus’ “divine conception,” Roman coins were minted with an inscription etched around an image of Caesar reading, “Son of God.”[iii] And like Christ, the Caesars were also given many of the same accolades including “Divine,” “Son of God,” “God,” “God from God,” “Redeemer,” “Liberator,” “Lord,” and “Savior of the World.” They even had a cult dedicated to their divine worship.[iv]
Every Prophecy Fulfilled! Daniel Chapter 11:36 Commentary: “He [the Willful King] will exalt and magnify Himself above every God . . .”
Thus it is not surprising that in speaking of the beast, Daniel writes, “He will exalt and magnify himself above every god and will say unheard-of things against the God of gods.” While the temple burned, the Roman army under Caesar Titus’ direction set up the ensigns on the eastern gate of the temple and offered sacrifices to them in an outward display of worship. At this time, Caesar Titus was declared imperator; and according to Suetonius, many of his soldiers wanted to make him emperor.[v] When his legions declared Titus emperor, Titus would have received all the divine praise normally directed toward his father. Thus Titus would have been worshipped during this celebration as was customary in the imperial cult in fulfillment of 2 Thessalonians 2:4: “He will oppose and will exalt himself over everything that is called God or is worshiped, so that he sets himself up in God’s temple, proclaiming himself to be God.”
Every Prophecy Fulfilled! Daniel Chapter 11:37 Commentary: “He [the Willful King] will show no regard for the God of His Fathers . . .”
Verse 37 states, “He will show no regard for the gods of his fathers . . .” Verse 37 might also be rendered, “He will show no regard for the god of his fathers . . .” Perhaps the god of his fathers is YHWH, the creator of heaven and earth? Titus was not the only Caesar to blaspheme the God. The early Caesars often seemed antagonistic to the God of Israel. One such blasphemy against the God of heaven is recorded in the Lives of the Twelve Caesars. Here Augustus, the second head of the beast, is recorded to have “praised his grandson Gaius for not offering prayers [to God] when he visited Jerusalem.”[vi] The fourth head of the beast, Gaius ordered that a statue of himself be erected in the temple in Jerusalem in violation of the monotheistic beliefs of the Jewish people. The sixth head of the beast, Nero found all religions contemptible:
He despised all religious cults except that of the Syrian Goddess, and showed one day, that he had changed his mind even about her, by urinating on the divine image. He had come, instead, to rest a superstitious belief–the only one, as a matter of fact, to which he remained faithful—in the statuette of a girl sent him by an anonymous commoner as a charm against conspiracies.[vii]
Every Prophecy Fulfilled! Daniel Chapter 11:37 Commentary: “Nor will He [the Willful King] regard any God, but will exalt Himself above Them All.”
Verse 37 also states that the willful king not “regard any god, but will exalt himself above them all.” The features of Caesar Augustus or his family members were often superimposed on those of the gods, such that Jupiter, the king of the gods, was crafted in the image of Augustus, the willful king. Caesar Gaius even went so far as to have the heads of various temple statues of gods removed and replaced with his own.[viii] Often appearing in public dressed as the Olympian gods, Caesar Gaius often referred to himself as a god when meeting with politicians and was called Jupiter, the king of the gods, in assorted public documents.[ix] Gaius’ successor, Claudius, the fourth head of the beast is depicted to the right in a statue in the Vatican Museum as Jupiter, the king of the gods.
38Instead of them, he will honor a god of fortresses; a god unknown to his fathers he will honor with gold and silver, with precious stones and costly gifts. 39He will attack the mightiest fortresses with the help of a foreign god and will greatly honor those who acknowledge him. He will make them rulers over many people and will distribute the land at a price.
Every Prophecy Fulfilled! Daniel Chapter 11:38-39 Commentary: Caesar, the Willful King, and Rome began to be worshipped in the Imperial Cult after the Death of the First Caesar. Is the God of Fortresses in v. 38 Rome and its Emperor?
Mars, the god of war, was the founding deity of the Rome.[x] That being said, could the beast, Rome and its emperor, be the foreign god of fortresses?[xi] Julius Caesar was formally deified after death. He was the first ruler of Rome believed by his people to be a god.[xii] Therefore, Julius Caesar, the first head of the beast, was “a god unknown to his fathers.” Rome adopted the practice of emperor worship from the Greeks, and this trend continued for many generations. The early Caesars were worshiped in conjunction with Rome in the imperial cult.
Every Prophecy Fulfilled! Daniel Chapter 11:39 Commentary: “He [the Willful King]. . . will greatly honor those who acknowledge Him. He will make them Rulers over many People and will distribute the Land at a Price.”
Julius Caesar was succeeded by Caesar Augustus, the second head of the beast. In order to legitimize his claim to the throne, Augustus, the willful king, promoted the deification of his predecessor and fought a series of battles in order to bring his father’s murderers to justice. After slaying these assassins, Augustus divided the responsibilities of government among his allies and the veterans of Augustus’ army were settled in municipal lands after having evicted the previous landowners in fulfillment of v. 39.[xiii]
Every Prophecy Fulfilled! Daniel Chapter 11:38-39 Commentary: “He [the Willful King] will Honor a God of Fortresses; a God unknown to His Fathers He will honor with Gold and Silver, with Precious Stones and Costly Gifts. He will attack the Mightiest Fortresses with the help of a Foreign God.”
At the beginning of Augustus’ reign, the empire was divided into three parts led by Augustus, then known as Octavian, Antony and Lepidus. Eventually conflict arose between Anthony and Augustus resulting in a major naval battle. After defeating Anthony and Cleopatra in the Battle of Actium described in the following verses, Augustus honored the god of the sea, Neptune, and the god of war, Mars, with loot taken from Anthony’s fleet.[xiv] This loot no doubt included gold, jewels and silver as indicated in v. 38. Augustus, the willful king, also built a grand temple to Mars, the founding deity of Rome,[xv] in addition to beautifying ruined temples with gold, pearls and precious stones.[xvi] This battle was said to occur “at the time of the end” because its outcome marked the rise of the Roman Empire, the fourth and final kingdom of Daniel’s visions. In the next verse, Daniel is shown a vision of this battle:
40“At the time of the end the king of the South will engage him in battle, and the king of the North will storm out against him with chariots and cavalry and a great fleet of ships. He will invade many countries and sweep through them like a flood.
Every Prophecy Fulfilled! Daniel Chapter 11:40 Commentary: The King of the North, Anthony, and the King of the South, Cleopatra, united to fight the Willful King, Caesar Augustus, with “Chariots and Cavalry and a Great Fleet of Ships” in the Battle of Actium.
As is the case throughout Daniel 11, the king of the south is the king of Egypt and the king of the north, the king of Syria. The ruler of Egypt, Cleopatra, is the king of the south and the king of Syria, Anthony, is the king of the north. Drawn together by love and mutual political ambition, the king of the north and south united to fight Augustus, the willful king, on the seas near Actium. Anthony’s impressive army of chariots and horsemen stood by the shore while Augustus, the willful king, drew his enemies out to sea rendering Anthony’s superior ground force largely ineffectual. “With a great fleet of ships” Augustus defeated his enemies’ armada.[xvii] Shortly thereafter Anthony, the king of the north, and Cleopatra, the king of the south, took their own lives consolidating Augustus’ power. With this decisive victory, Augustus became the first emperor of Rome; and upon his rise to power, Roman democracy died. Thus began “the time of the end.”
41He will also invade the Beautiful Land. Many countries will fall, but Edom, Moab and the leaders of Ammon will be delivered from his hand.
Every Prophecy Fulfilled! Daniel Chapter 11:41 Commentary: After the Battle of Actium, Edom, Moab and the Leaders of Ammon were delivered from Caesar’s Hand.
After Augustus, the willful king, defeated Cleopatra, the king of the south, at the Battle of Actium, the young emperor seized all her kingdom. As a result, Augustus, the willful king, acquired full control over Israel, the Beautiful land. Interestingly, with Israel conquered, Augustus, the willful king, never raised his mighty arm against Israel’s neighbors.
During the time of this prophecy, the kingdoms of Ammon, Moab and Edom were at the east and southeast borders of Israel. However, after the Babylonian conquest many Edomites migrated north. These people settled in southern Judea south of Hebron having been driven out of their ancestral territory to the south and east by the Nabateans. The Nabateans also occupied the land of Moab; thus ancient Edom and Moab became Nabatea. During Augustus’ reign, Nabatea remained a sovereign nation. It had not become part of the Roman Empire until the reign of Trajan. In 63 B.C. the former territory of Ammon, then called the Decapolis, was a group of ten cities that welcomed the Romans as their liberators from the oppression of the Jewish Hasmonean kingdom. The Romans allowed these ten cities of the Decapolis some degree of political independence within the protective sphere of Rome. Thus Daniel was right: The ancient territories of Edom and Moab had escaped the rule of the willful king while the leaders of Ammon had, in fact, retained their right to rule unmolested by Rome.
42He will extend his power over many countries; Egypt will not escape. 43He will gain control of the treasures of gold and silver and all the riches of Egypt, with the Libyans and Nubians in submission.
Every Prophecy Fulfilled! Daniel Chapter 11:42-43 Commentary: After the Battle of Actium, Caesar Augustus, the Willful King, subjugated Egypt and Libya and captured and enslaved the Nubians of Napata. Caesar Augustus, the Willful King, also brought the Wealth of Egypt to Rome.
After his victory at the Battle of Actium, Augustus, the willful king, extended his dominion over the land of his two conquered enemies. Thus the willful king acquired Israel, Egypt and Libya from Cleopatra, the king of the south, while confiscating Greece and Syria from Anthony, the king of the north. With Cleopatra defeated, the riches of Egypt were brought to Rome. Regarding this transfer of wealth, Suetonius writes, “When he [Augustus, the willful king] brought the treasures of the Ptolemies [Egyptians] to Rome at his Alexandrian triumph, so much cash passed into private hands that the interest rate on loans dropped sharply, while real estate values soared.” [xviii] Furthermore, with control over Egypt, Augustus dispatched the Roman General Petronius to Nubia. Under his leadership, the Romans captured Napata.[xix] With the city captured and the people of Napata enslaved, Nubia was forced into submission in fulfillment of v. 43.
44But reports from the east and the north will alarm him, and he will set out in a great rage to destroy and annihilate many. 45He will pitch his royal tents between the seas at the beautiful holy mountain. Yet he will come to his end, and no one will help him.
Every Prophecy Fulfilled! Daniel Chapter 11:44 Commentary: Both Israel to the East and Gaul to the North revolted against Rome. Enraged, Caesar, the Willful King, dispatched the Roman Legions. As the Roman Army pitched its Tents outside of Jerusalem, the Beautiful Holy Mountain, Caesar, the Willful King, was declared an Enemy of the State and died with “no one [to] help him.”
From v. 36 to the end of the chapter, Daniel describes Rome and its emperor. In these two verses, Daniel turns his attention away from Augustus to another Caesar and willful king–the last in the Caesar family line. Such an abrupt switch in focus from Caesar Augustus to one of his successors might initially seem peculiar; however, as stated earlier such a transition has repeated precedence. Throughout chapter 11, Daniel traces hundreds of years of foreign relations between the kings of Syria, the king of the north, and Egypt, the king of the south. Throughout this chronology, Daniel describes the actions of one king and immediately transitions to those of his successor often without ever indicating the death of one king and the rise of the next. Each king is simply identified as the king of the north or the king of the south. A similar transition is found here. In the preceding verses, Daniel describes the events surrounding the rise of the Roman Empire and its first emperor, Caesar Augustus; then in v. 44, Daniel begins to describe the most infamous Caesar [or willful king] of all–Nero.
The reign of Nero, the willful king, was dominated by tyranny and injustice. Thus it was only a matter of time before the people revolted. Just before Nero’s death, there were two major revolts: Israel in the east and Gaul in the north in fulfillment of v. 44: “[R]eports from the east and the north will alarm him.”[xx] Enraged, Nero attacked Israel, the Beautiful land, destroying and annihilating many fulfilling the remainder of v. 44 “[A]nd he will set out in a great rage to destroy and annihilate many.” During this war, a dispatch was brought to the willful king during dinner informing him of a revolt in Gaul. Tearing up the message, he pushed over the dinner table in anger.[xxi] Recording Nero’s murderous rage upon hearing of this treachery, Suetonius writes:
Thus, he [Nero] intended to depose all army commanders and provincial governors, and to execute them on a charge that they were all involved in a single conspiracy; and to dispatch all exiles everywhere, for fear they might join the rebels; and all Gallic residents at Rome, because they might be implicated in the rising. He further considered giving the army free permission to pillage Gaul; poisoning the entire Senate at a banquet; and setting fire to the city again, but letting wild beasts loose in the streets to hinder the citizens from saving themselves. [xxii]
When the Roman army set-up camp during the war with Israel, Josephus says that the middle of the camp was “set apart for tents. . . . [with] the tents of the commanders in the middle; but in the very midst of all is the general’s own tent, in the nature of a temple . . .”[xxiii] As predicted in v. 45, while the Roman army made preparations to attack Jerusalem, “the beautiful holy mountain,” the infamous emperor died in fulfillment of v. 45: “He will pitch his royal tents between the seas at the beautiful holy mountain. Yet he will come to his end . . .”
Declared an enemy of the state by vote of the senate, Nero, the willful king, “had been abandoned by everybody”[xxiv] and preparations were made for his arrest. His subjects now his enemies, Nero committed suicide having stabbed himself in the throat. Thus the willful king had “come to his end” with no one to “help him.”
In the last year of Nero’s reign, a bolt of lightening “struck the Temple of the Caesars, decapitating all the statues at a stroke and dashed Augustus’s sceptre from his hands.” Shortly thereafter the Caesar family line had come to an end. But this was not the only miraculous sign witnessed toward the end of Nero’s reign. In the next chapter, Daniel describes the rise of the Archangel Michael corresponding with perhaps the most unbelievable event in Roman history…
[i] This contention is weakened by v. 37. If the author of Daniel intended to predict the future after having accurately recorded the past, why would he include an inaccurate description of Antiochus Epiphanes, the king of the north, in v. 37 if this was truly the man he intended to describe throughout the remainder of the chapter? Antiochus Epiphanes was famously devoted to Zeus. However, Daniel’s description of the willful king in v. 37 indicates that he will not regard any god. If the editor of Daniel intended to predict that the willful king was Antiochus Epiphanes, why would he make such an egregious error regarding Antiochus’ religious beliefs? One might assume that perhaps the editor of Daniel did not know Antiochus Epiphanes religious affiliation, however, this would be almost impossible since Antiochus Epiphanes tried to compel the Jews to worship Zeus, and this was largely the cause of the Maccabean Wars.
[ii] Antiochus Epiphanes, the king of the north, died in 164 B.C., and the rise of the Roman Empire is marked by the Battle of Actium in 31 B.C.
[iii] John Dominic Crossan, God and Empire: Jesus Against Rome, Then and Now (San Francisco: Harper Collins Publishers, 2007), 117.
[iv] Steven J. Friesen, Imperial Cults and the Apocalypse of John: Reading Revelation in the Ruins(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), 26, 32.
[v] Suetonius Lives of the Twelve Caesars 11.5.
[vi] Ibid., 2.93.
[vii] Ibid., 6.56.
[viii] Michael Farquhar, A Treasure of Royal Scandals (New York: Penguin Books, 2001), 209.
[ix] Philo of Alexandria On the Embassy to Gaius 11-15; Cassius Dio Roman History 59.26-28.
[x] Venus was also considered a founding deity of Rome.
[xi] The identity of this “god of fortresses” is uncertain. In Joel 3:16, God is described as a fortress.
[xii] Suetonius Lives of the Twelve Caesars 1.88.
[xiii] Ibid., 2.13.
[xiv] Ibid., 2.18.
[xv] Ibid., 2.29. Augustus was a title often appended to the name of gods including Mars. Intended to honor the god, this title also seemed to infer that the deity and the emperor were one. In Spain many dedications to Mars Augustus were presented by members of the priesthood called Augustales. These vows were often fulfilled within a temple dedicated to the worship of the emperor or in a temple dedicated to Mars. The Caesars were also often depicted in the form of Greek deities in statues and Roman currency. The presentation of the Greek gods in the image of the emperor might be seen as a kind of foreign god, “a god unknown to his fathers.” It is also worth noting that ancient Romans worshiped spiritual forces and powers. Rome did not begin to worship a pantheon of anthropomorphic deities until it came into contact with Greek culture in the sixth century B.C. After its first exposure to Greece, Rome slowly began to adopt and modify the Greek gods. Interestingly the seeds of this transition began to be planted at approximately the same time in which Daniel is purported to have seen this vision. As the Roman Empire expanded, it adopted the religions of the people it subjugated. In addition to adopting the Greek gods, Rome later adopted the Greek practice of emperor worship. In addition, Rome also adopted astrology from Babylon as well as several mystery religions including Mithraism from Persia. The replacement of ancient Roman spirituality with foreign religions had taken firm hold before and during Augustus’ reign. Consequently, Augustus would have probably been quite unfamiliar with the gods of his ancestors, those deities worshiped in Rome during Daniel’s composition. So in this way, Augustus had shown “no regard for the gods of his fathers.” Perhaps the gods in which this king had not honored were the ancient spiritual gods of Roman history? In verse 37, the willful king is also said to have shown no regard for any god. It would seem that the author of the Book of Daniel probably never intended to convey the idea that this king was truly atheistic since in the following verse, this king is said to have honored a god of fortresses.
[xvi] Ibid., 2.30. One such donation to Jupiter included 16,000 pounds of gold in addition to pearls and precious stones worth 500,000 gold pieces.
[xvii] Plutarch Plutarch’s Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans Marcus Antonius 61-62.
[xviii] Suetonius Lives of the Twelve Caesars 2.41.
[xix] The Nubians and Romans ultimately signed a peace treaty which remained in effect for three hundred years.
[xx] Cassius Dio Roman History 63.22.
[xxi] Suetonius Lives of the Twelve Caesars 6.47.
[xxii] Ibid., 6.43.
[xxiii] Josephus The Wars of the Jews 3.5.2.
[xxiv] Cassius Dio Roman History 63.26; Suetonius Lives of the Twelve Caesars 6.47-49.