Mike**: December 17, 2009
Scripture text for this study: Revelation 19:1-21
**Our study of Revelation 19 was led by Mike back on December 17th, but there is much here in this post beyond what was presented that evening. This post was created on Mike’s behalf, with his permission and blessing. –Adam
Verses 1-6: In the previous chapter we saw much mourning on the part of the kings, merchants, and shipmasters “of the earth” (which we understood to be Palestine)** because of Babylon’s destruction and burning. Here at the beginning of this chapter we see that all of heaven rejoices, for God “has judged the great prostitute…and has avenged on her the blood of His servants” (verse 2). As we have already discussed in chapters 16-18 there is only one entity that Jesus said would be held responsible for the shed blood of His saints, prophets, and apostles, and that is first-century Israel (Matthew 23:35-36, Luke 11:50-51; cf. Rev. 16:4-6, 17:6, 18:20-24).
**[In our study of Revelation so far, we have also suggested that many of the references to “the earth” in the book of Revelation are not meant to be taken as worldwide in scope, but as dealing instead with the land of Israel/Palestine. In a 3-part study on this subject beginning with this post, I have outlined nearly 20 instances where this appears to be the case.]
As we also discussed in our studies of Rev. 17 and Rev. 18, the expression “the smoke from her goes up forever and ever” (verse 3) is more a reference to the eternal extinction of Old Covenant temple-based Judaism than it is to the physical city of Jerusalem, though both were laid waste in 70 AD. This expression was also used in Rev. 14:11 regarding the torment laid up for those who would worship the beast and its image. It hearkens back to Isaiah 34, where the same expression was used in regard to the judgment upon Edom, and perhaps even further back to the judgment upon Sodom (Jerusalem’s namesake; cf. Rev. 11:8) and Gomorrah (Genesis 19:28).
In his book, “Revelation: Four Views (A Parallel Commentary),” Steve Gregg presents David Chilton’s side-by-side comparison of the first six verses of Revelation 19 with the last five verses (15-19) of Revelation 11. Chilton indicates that very similar subject matter is established “in the two passages which represent the closing visions of the two major sections of the book.” These are the six similar elements identified by Chilton (p. 440):
1. loud voices…in heaven (11:15; 19:1);
2. the declaration of the commencement of the reign of God (11:15, 17; 19:1, 6);
3. the twenty-four elders fall on their faces and worship (11:16; 19:4);
4. the avenging of the blood of His servants is announced (11:18; 18:24; 19:2);
5. reference to God’s servants…who fear Him, small and great (11:18; 19:5);
6. loud noises, including thunderings (11:19; 19:6).
In verse 6, we see a reference to the onset of God’s kingdom in its fullness in the words of the great multitude crying out: “Hallelujah! For the Lord our God the Almighty reigns.” In the preterist section of the book “Four Views on the Book of Revelation” (edited by Stanley N. Gundry and C. Marvin Pate, Zondervan Publishing: 1998), Kenneth Gentry (pp. 80-81) speaks in much detail regarding the significance of the kingdom being taken from the harlot and given to the bride [refer to the next section]:
The New Testament records the gradual establishment of the kingdom (cf. Matt. 13:31-33; Mark 4:26-29): from its ministerial announcement (Matt. 12:28; Mark 1:15) to its legal security at the cross (Matt. 28:18; Rom. 1:3-4; Phil. 2:1-11; Col. 1:13; 2:14-15) to its public vindication in Israel’s overthrow (Matt. 23:32-24:21; Gal. 4:21-31; I Thess. 2:16; Rev. 6-19). God’s removal of the temple system—physically breaking down the “dividing wall of hostility” legally broken in Christ (Eph. 2:14)—conclusively ended the early Zionistic tendencies of many first-century Christians (e.g. Acts 11:1-3; 15:1; Rom. 14:1-8; Gal. 1-5; Col. 2:16; Tit. 3:9) and established Christianity as a separate religion in its own right (this is why Jesus likens the great tribulation to “birth pains,” Matt. 24:8).
In conjunction with the marriage feast preparations, the bridegroom appears. In fact, his divorce and the capital punishment of his adulterous wife-prostitute provide the very justification for this celebration and new marriage (19:11-18). The lesson of Revelation now becomes clear: Christ gloriously appears as a warrior-bridegroom, punishing faithless Jerusalem and taking a new bride.
To this picture of Christ taking a new bride we now turn; we will also see this picture expanded upon greatly in our study of Revelation 21.
Verse 7: Here we see a call for rejoicing, “for the marriage of the Lamb has come, and His Bride has made herself ready.” Steve Gregg cites a couple of examples from elsewhere in the New Testament showing that this was an ongoing process during the generation after Christ’s ascension to the Father (pp. 442, 444):
A prerequisite of the coming of the marriage day is that His wife has made herself ready (v. 7). Chilton comments: “The duty of the apostles during the Last Days was to prepare the Church for her nuptials. Paul wrote of Christ’s sacrifice as the redemption of the Bride: He ‘loved the Church and gave Himself up for her; that He might sanctify her, having cleansed her by the washing of water with the Word; that He might present to Himself the glorious Church, having no spot or wrinkle or any such thing; but that she should be holy and blameless’ (Eph. 5:25-27). Paul extended this imagery in speaking to the Corinthians about the goal of his ministry: ‘I am jealous for you with godly jealousy; for I betrothed you to one Husband, that to Christ I might present you as a pure virgin’ (2 Cor. 11:2-3).”
The preparedness of the bride involves two distinct aspects. On the one hand, the righteous acts that comprise her wedding attire are a gift of grace granted [v. 8] to her by God. On the other, she has made herself ready (v. 7). These bring out both man’s (I Tim. 4:16; I John 3:3) and God’s (Col. 1:22; Eph. 5:26) agency in the sanctification of the church (cf. I Thess. 5:15-24).
David Chilton echoes Gentry’s words earlier with this observation (Steve Gregg, p. 440),
the destruction of the Harlot and the marriage of the Lamb and the Bride—the divorce and the wedding—are correlative events. The existence of the Church as the congregation of the New Covenant marks an entirely new epoch in the history of redemption. God was not now merely taking Gentile believers into the Old Covenant (as He had done under the Old Testament economy). Rather, He was bringing in “the age to come” (Heb. 2:5; 6:5), the age of fulfillment… With the final divorce and destruction of the unfaithful wife in A.D. 70, the marriage of the Church was firmly established.
The Parable of the Tenants (Matthew 21:33-45) foretold this divorce of faithless Israel, and the corresponding marriage of the Church (in terms of granting the kingdom to the Church). The religious leaders of Israel (vs. 45), being guilty of murdering the prophets (vss. 34-36) and finally rejecting and murdering God’s Son (vss. 37-39, vs. 42), were to suffer the loss of the kingdom (vs. 43) when the owner of the vineyard came in judgment (vss. 40-41). The language of verse 44 (“And the one who falls on this stone will be broken to pieces; and when it falls on anyone, it will crush him”) seems to be a clear reference to the catastrophic downfall of Jerusalem and temple-based Judaism in 70 AD.
Regarding Chilton’s statement that “the destruction of the Harlot and the marriage of the Lamb and the Bride…are correlative events,” we made the same observation in our study of chapter 17. There we compared the language of Revelation 17:1, 3 with the language of Revelation 21:9-10, a passage that expands on what we now see here:
A. Revelation 17:1: “Then one of the seven angels who had the seven bowls came and said to me, ‘Come, I will show you the judgment of the great prostitute who is seated on many waters.’”
A. Revelation 21:9: “Then came one of the seven angels which had the seven bowls full of the seven last plagues and spoke to me, saying, ‘Come, I will show you the Bride, the wife of the Lamb.’”
B. Revelation 17:3: “And he carried me away in the Spirit into a wilderness, and I saw a woman sitting on a scarlet beast that was full of blasphemous names.”
B. Revelation 21:10: “And he carried me away in the Spirit to a great, high mountain, and showed me the holy Jerusalem coming down out of heaven from God.”
Verse 8: The bride is pictured clothed “with fine linen, bright and pure.” We are told explicitly that the fine linen is “the righteous deeds of the saints.” Sam Storms, a Historicist, notes three ways that this might be understood:
[a] Some believe this points to the idea repeated throughout Revelation of the saints “holding to the testimony of Jesus” (cf. 19:10), i.e., bearing witness to Jesus in both word and deed (see 1:9; 6:9; 11:7; 12:11,17; 20:4).
[b] Others emphasize the idea of purity that results from persevering faith amidst trials and suffering (cf. 3:5-6).
[c] Another suggestion is that the phrase “righteous acts of the saints” points instead to God’s act of vindication on behalf of the saints. In other words, God’s act of judgment against Babylon and the beast, persecutors of the saints, is a declaration of acquittal. In other words, God has vindicated them. He has passed judgment on their behalf. If so, the “fine linen” points to the final reward for having lived righteously rather than to the righteous living itself.
As Steve Gregg did above, Sam Storms speaks of the action of both God and man throughout a believer’s life:
Finally, note the classic theological tension between divine sovereignty and human responsibility: on the one hand, the bride “has made herself ready” (v. 7), yet on the other hand, “it was given to her [by God] to clothe herself” (v. 8). On this tension see Phil. 2:12-13. Yes, the bride must actively and willingly pursue purity of life (“work out your salvation with fear and trembling”), yet all the while acknowledging that it is God’s grace that makes it possible (“for it is God who is at work in you to work and to will for his good pleasure”).
Verse 9: An angel instructs John to write these words, “Blessed are those who are invited to the marriage supper of the Lamb.” A seemingly obvious parallel to this is The Parable of the Wedding Feast in Matthew 22:1-11, which follows directly after the Parable of the Tenants cited above. In this parable, speaking of the kingdom of heaven (vs. 2), a king (God) was to prepare a wedding feast for his son (Jesus), but those who were originally invited (the Jews) refused to come (vss. 3-5) and even killed the king’s servants who had invited them (v. 6). Therefore, these murderers were destroyed (cf. Matthew 23:29-38; Rev. 16:4-7, 17:6, 18:20, 18:24), and their city was burned (cf. Rev. 18:8-10, 18; 19:3). This is precisely what we see having happened in Jerusalem’s destruction and burning in 70 AD. The invitation then goes out to others (Gentiles as well as Jews; vss. 9-10), but only those with proper wedding garments were allowed to remain (vss. 10-14; cf. Rev. 19:8). Those who lacked these garments remained in outer darkness and were not part of the chosen people of God (vss. 13-14; cf. Matt. 8:11-12), despite the claims of John Hagee and other Christian Zionists to the contrary.
Verses 11-16: In this section we see Christ proceeding out of an open heaven on a white horse, followed by the armies of heaven, and wielding a sharp sword in His mouth. John’s description of Christ here is beautiful. Steve Gregg adds these helpful notes (pp. 448, 450),
There are some fully-realized preterists who do not believe that the Bible speaks of Christ coming to earth in the future. They believe that all the references to the “Second Coming” in the Bible were fulfilled in A.D. 70. This appears to be the position of J. Stuart Russell and some others. Most preterist commentators, however, seem to expect an actual coming of Christ in the future—much as do those who take other approaches to Revelation.
Even these expositors, however, do not generally see the Second Coming of Christ in the passage before us. The coming of Christ on a white horse may be thought of by many as the quintessential vision of the Second Coming at the end of the present age, but most preterists agree with Jay Adams, who believes it applies to the continuing warfare of the church through the proclamation of the gospel following the fall of Babylon in the previous chapters:
“This section is often mistaken for the second coming of Christ. But, in every significant feature, it is clearly differentiated from that event… There is one basic fact which confirms this contention: the beast and false prophet are the ones upon whom the judgment of Revelation 19 falls (vv. 19-21). These are the very same characters who previously have been shown to represent the contemporary Roman world empire and its religious agent [i.e. contemporary to John]… That this does not describe a physical coming such as the second advent is apparent from at least two facts: first, Christ is nowhere else said to return upon a horse. He did not ascend this way, and He is to return as He ascended… Secondly, the conflict described here is spiritual, not physical (unlike that which will transpire at the second advent). This is a battle waged and won by the Word of God. This is clear from the reference to the Word as the weapon which issues from the mouth of the Savior—cf. verses 15 and 21.”
David S. Clark agrees: “Now I submit the question: Is this not the conquering power of the gospel and the triumph of Christianity? The sword of the Spirit which is the word of God, by preaching, and teaching, and testimony conquers the world for Christ.” Chilton concurs: “It is not the Second Coming that is portrayed here, but rather Christ’s defeat of the nations by His bare Word.”
Steve Gregg notes that both Clark and Chilton are postmillennialists, and therefore are looking for “the virtual conversion of the nations to the Christian faith.” He then adds, “Not all preterists, however, are postmillennial. Some are amillennial (like Jay Adams), and there is probably nothing to prevent a preterist from being premillennial. Regardless of one’s millennial presuppositions, it is possible to see this warfare in Revelation 19:11ff as the victory of Christ through the church…” (p. 452). We will be taking a look at various interpretations of the Millennium in our next series of posts on Revelation 20.
The following are a few notes from Sam Storms on this section:
He “judges and wages war” (v. 11). Both verbs are present tense, perhaps pointing to timeless or customary actions of the rider. This judgment and waging of war is not merely against unbelievers but also on behalf of his people.
He has a name written “which no one knows except Himself” (v. 12). This clearly echoes Rev. 2:17 as well as 3:12… To some he reveals his name (i.e., his character) by initiating a salvific relationship (as in 2:17; 3:12; 22:3-4; Luke 10:22; Matt. 16:16-17), but to others he reveals his name through an experience of judgment” (Beale, 955-56; cf. Exod. 6:3). Thus, most likely “name” = character as saving Lord and/or judging king. [After all, Sam points out, Jesus reveals several names here for Himself: “Faithful and True”, “The Word of God”, “King of kings and Lord of lords.”]
He is clothed in a “robe dipped in blood” (v. 13). See Isa. 63:1-3. There are several possibilities for identifying whose blood it is. Some say it is the blood of Christ himself, shed at Calvary, while others contend that it points to the blood of the martyred saints. On the other hand, it may well be the blood of Christ’s defeated enemies (a common OT image: see Exod. 15; Deut. 33; Judges 5; Hab. 3; Isa. 26:16-27:6; 59:15-20; 63:1-6; Zech. 14:1-21).
He is followed by a heavenly “army” (v. 14). This may well be an army of angels accompanying Jesus from heaven to execute final judgment (cf. Mt. 13:40-42; 16:27; 25:31-32; Mark 8:38; Luke 9:26; 2 Thess. 1:7; Jude 14-15). Or, again, these may be Christian believers, martyrs and others in the intermediate state, who accompany him. Rev. 17:14 identifies those who come with Christ as the “called and chosen and faithful”, a clear reference to Christians. Also, in Revelation, with one exception (15:6), only believers wear white garments (see 3:4-5,18; 4:4; 6:11; 7:9,13-14).
A sharp “sword” from his mouth is used to “smite the nations”, which he rules “with a rod of iron” (v. 15). The OT background for this is found in Isa. 49:2; 11:4; and Ps. 2:9. He treads “the wine press” of God’s wrath (v. 15). This image is drawn from Isa. 63:2-6. See also Rev. 14:19-20.
Regarding “the armies of heaven, arrayed in fine linen, white and pure” following Christ on white horses, are they  angels  humans  both? The best argument for their being humans comes from earlier in this chapter. Rev. 19:8 speaks of a company clothed with “fine linen, bright and pure,” and there is no doubt that these are believers (i.e. humans), for they are the Bride (verse 7) emanating “righteous deeds” (verse 8). Yet there is also some basis for the possibility that this army is at least partly angelic. Storms astutely notes, as we also did in our study of Revelation 15, the one instance where non-human entities are seen clothed in pure, white linen: “After this I looked, and the sanctuary of the tent of witness in heaven was opened, and out of the sanctuary came the seven angels with the seven plagues, clothed in pure, bright linen, with golden sashes around their chests” (Rev. 15:5-6).
As these angels in Revelation 15 came bearing judgment and plagues, it’s possible that they (possibly along with others) appear again here in chapter 19, as the context is once again judgment. It’s possible that this symbolism of “pure, bright linen” represents both angels and saints in this instance. If the saints are among these “armies of heaven,” does this necessarily indicate their physical descent from heaven on horses with Jesus, or could this also be the outworking of the prayers of the martyrs (Rev. 6:10; cf. Rev. 8:3-5) for their blood to be avenged “on those who dwell on the earth”? Feel free to comment on this particular question. That angels are (also or exclusively) in view here is further indicated by a parallel passage in Zechariah 14. There we read:
Behold, a day is coming for the Lord, when the spoil taken from you will be divided in your midst. For I will gather all the nations against Jerusalem to battle, and the city shall be taken and the houses plundered and the women raped. Half of the city shall go out into exile, but the rest of the people shall not be cut off from the city. Then the Lord will go out and fight against those nations as when He fights on a day of battle… And you shall flee to the valley of My mountains, for the valley of the mountains shall reach to Azal. And you shall flee as you fled from the earthquake in the days of Uzziah king of Judah. Then the Lord My God will come, and all the holy ones with Him (Zech. 14:1-5).
Some Bible translations agree with the ESV (quoted here) in using the phrase “the holy ones” (e.g. NIV, NASB, NLT, Young’s Literal Translation), while others use “holy angels” (e.g. Contemporary English Version). The King James Version uses the phrase “all the saints,” as does the NKJV. Interestingly, The Amplified Bible uses the phrase “saints and angels.” There are plenty of indications that Zechariah’s prophecy concerns the events of 70 AD, including the New Covenant language of Zech. 13:9 (see our study on Revelation 21–pending at this time), the reference to the taking of the city of Jerusalem (14:2), and the fleeing of God’s people to the mountains (14:5). In the reading of Zech. 14, one must discern when Old Jerusalem is being spoken of and when the New Jerusalem is being spoken of (cf. Gal. 4:21-27; Heb. 12:22-24). For the sake of time and space, I will mention only one more indication (though there are many) that this text is speaking of the events of 70 AD. In Zech. 14:7 we read: “And there shall be a unique day, which is known to the Lord, neither day nor night, but at evening time there shall be light.” Josephus records a most interesting event which took place less than a year before Jerusalem was destroyed in 70 AD: “On the eighth of the month Zanthicus, (before the feast of unleavened bread) at the ninth hour of the night, there shone round about the altar, and the circumjacent buildings of the temple, a light equal to the brightness of the day, which continued for the space of half an hour” [Source: George Peter Holford, 1805].
The idea that angels are involved in the judgment of Rev. 19:14-15 is also consistent with the statement that Jesus made to His disciples in Matthew 16:27-28, where He said: “For the Son of Man is going to come with His angels in the glory of His Father, and then He will repay each person according to what he has done. Truly, I say to you, there are some standing here who will not taste death until they see the Son of Man coming in His kingdom.” Some contend that this statement was fulfilled in Christ’s transfiguration six days later, because they find it impossible to avoid the fact that this prophecy was to find fulfillment within the lifetime of some who heard Him say these words. If this is the case, though, in what sense did Jesus “come with His angels” at that time and repay each person according to what he had done (a clear picture of judgment)? This explanation fails, because none of Jesus’ disciples died during the six days after Jesus made this statement, but some were indeed martyred before 70 AD. This text finds a clear parallel in Rev. 22:12 (“Behold, I am coming soon, bringing My recompense with Me, to repay everyone for what He has done“). Unless it can be demonstrated that Rev. 19:14-15 and Rev. 22:12 are speaking of two different judgment-comings, then Matt. 16 is one more clear indication that Rev. 19 is speaking of a 70-AD judgment.
Verses 15-18: Personally, while open to the idea that the ongoing proclamation of the Word of God in the spread of the gospel throughout the Church age is in view here, I lean toward the primary application of this passage being Christ’s non-physical coming in judgment upon apostate Israel in 70 AD, the fulfillment of what was prophesied in Revelation 1:7. After all, this text (Rev. 19:11-16) speaks of Christ coming to strike down the nations, and being ready to “tread the winepress of the fury of the wrath of God the Almighty” (vs. 15).
An additional note may be helpful here. This is the classic text regarding the famed “Battle of Armageddon” which many believe is to happen in our future. Many more details are actually given in two other texts:  Rev. 14:17-20, where the “winepress of the wrath of God” is also spoken of, and  Rev. 16:12-16, where the name “Armageddon” is actually named as a place. We noted in our study of Revelation 14 and also in our study of Revelation 16 that Tim Lahaye and other Futurist authors generally say this battle will happen in the plain of Megiddo. Author John Noe, on the other hand, notes that what the Bible refers to as a “battle on the great day of God the Almighty” (Rev. 16:14) would transpire “at the place that in Hebrew is called Armageddon” (Rev. 16:16). In Hebrew it’s actually “Har-Magedon,” as “har” means mountain in Hebrew (“Armageddon” is based on the Greek rendering, since “h” is silent in Hebrew). Therefore, this battle was to take place primarily on a mountain, not in a valley. Noe adds,
The most likely case is that Revelation’s “Har” is Jerusalem. Geographically, Jerusalem sits on top of a mountain. To get there from any direction one must go “up to Jerusalem” (2 Sam. 19:34; 1 Ki. 12:28; 2 Ki. 18:17; 2 Chron. 2:16; Ezra 1:3; 7:7; Zech. 14:17; Matt. 20:17, 18; Mark 10:32, 33; Luke 18:31; 19:28; John 2:13; 5:1; Acts 11:2; 15:2; 21:12, 15; 24:11; 25:9; Gal. 1:17, 18). Jerusalem is also called God’s “holy mountain” (Psa. 43:3) and the “chief among the mountains” (Isa. 2:2-3; also 14:13; Exod. 15:17; Joel 2:32; 3:16-17)… “Magedon/Megiddo” may also be comparative imagery. A great slaughter once took place in the valley of Megiddo (2 Ki. 9:27; Zech. 12:11). Throughout ancient history, this valley was also a favorite corridor for invading armies and the scene of numerous famous battles (Jud. 4-7; 1 Sam. 29-31; 2 Sam. 4; 1 Ki. 9:15; 2 Ki. 9-10; 22; 2 Chron. 35). So much blood was shed in this valley of Jezreel or Megiddo that it became a synonym for slaughter, violence, bloodshed, and battlefield, as well as a symbol for God’s judgment (Hos. 1:4-5). In our day, Armageddon has also become synonymous with and a symbol for the ultimate in warfare and conflict.
In a similar fashion, the word “Waterloo” has garnered a symbolic use. Back in 1815, this town in Belgium was the battleground and scene of Napoleon’s final defeat. Today, we have a saying that some one or some thing has met their “Waterloo.” We don’t mean they have met that city in Europe. We mean, by way of comparative imagery, that they have met a decisive or crushing defeat, or their demise. I suggest Revelation employs the word Magedon/Megiddo in this same manner. History records that a great slaughter took place on a mountain in Palestine within the lifetime of the original recipients of the book of Revelation. In A.D. 70 the Roman armies of Titus totally destroyed Jerusalem and the Temple. According to Eusebius, 1.1 million Jews were killed.”
Josephus also records these details regarding the bloody slaughter that occurred immediately following the burning of the temple:
“[The Romans] ran everyone through [with swords] whom they met with, and obstructed the very lanes with their dead bodies, and made the whole city run down with blood, to such a degree indeed that the fire of many houses was quenched with these men’s blood” (The Wars Of The Jews, 6:8:5).
John Wesley (1703-1791) understood this event to be the fulfillment of these passages in Revelation, for he wrote the following in his commentary:
And the winepress was trodden – By the Son of God, Rev 19:15. Without [outside] the city – Jerusalem. They to whom St. John writes, when a man said, ‘the city,’ immediately understood this. And blood came out of the winepress, even to the horses’ bridles – So deep at its first flowing from the winepress! One thousand six hundred furlongs – So far! At least two hundred miles, through the whole land of Palestine.
The phrase “the nations” in verse 15 does not necessarily need to be understood as worldwide in scope, for in 70 AD the land of Palestine was made up of the following nations:  Phoenicia  Galilee  Samaria  Judea  Idumea  Philistia  Gualanitis  Decapolis  Perea  Nabatea.
Photo Credit: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:First_century_palestine.gif
Kenneth Gentry adds his own reasons for allowing that the destruction of “the flesh of all men” (verse 18) could legitimately have been a local judgment, rather than a global one:
[A]pocalyptic imagery often engages in hyperbole by making universalistic statements. For instance, Isaiah speaks of the destruction of Idumea in Isa 34 as if “all the nations” are to be “utterly destroyed” (34:2) and the universe is to collapse (34:4–5)… Second, even in more mundane contexts Scripture can make universal statements without requiring a global interpretation. Paul states that in his day the gospel was “proclaimed in all creation under heaven” (Col. 1:23), “in all the world” (Col. 1:6), “throughout the whole world” (Rom. 1:8). All agree that he is not claiming the gospel had been preached in South Africa, Antarctica, and Detroit. Elsewhere he is accused by the Jews of preaching “to all men everywhere [pantas pantachç]” (Acts 21:28). Again no record exists for his preaching in Cleveland or even in Gaul. If these statements can be made in mundane narratives, why can they not in apocalyptic drama?
On the fleshly feast prepared for “all the birds that fly directly overhead” (verse 17), Sam Storms has these thoughts:
Here the angel announces the coming destruction of the beast, false prophet, and their followers through the same imagery found in Ezek. 39:4,17-20 where the defeat of Gog and Magog is described. The picture of vultures or other birds of prey feasting on the flesh of unburied corpses killed in battle (see also Rev. 19:21b) was a familiar one to people in the OT (cf. Deut. 28:26; 1 Sam. 17:44-46; 1 Kings 14:11; 16:4; 21:24; 2 Kings 9:10; Jer. 7:33; 15:3; 16:4; 19:7; 34:20; Ezek. 29:5).
Steve Gregg comments further (pp. 452, 454),
The calling of the birds…for the supper of the great God (v. 17) is no doubt intended as a contrast to the marriage feast referred to in verse 9. Jay Adams writes: “Chapter 19 is the story of two suppers. They contrast sharply. One is a joyous marriage feast; the other the carnage of vultures.”
Chilton, who sees the losers of this battle—those who become food for birds—as Israel in A.D. 70, reminds us that “a basic curse of the covenant is that of being eaten by birds of prey (cf. Deut. 28:26, 49). Israel is now a sacrificial corpse (Matt. 24:28), and there is no longer anyone who can drive away the scavengers (cf. Gen. 15:11; Duet. 28:26). John’s language is borrowed from God’s invitation through Ezekiel ‘to every bird and beast of the field’ to devour the corpses of His enemies (Ezek. 39:17-20).”
Gregg’s conclusion that Israel had become the sacrificial corpse spoken of by Jesus in Matthew 24:28, fit to be the prey of birds, is interesting in light of one fact that the Jewish historian Josephus recorded concerning the Roman armies that decimated Jerusalem in 70 AD. I wrote the following in my term paper on this subject:
[George Peter] Holford [referencing Josephus in his 1805 work titled “The Destruction of Jerusalem”] picks up on the phrase spoken by Jesus in Matthew 24:28, “For wherever the carcass is, there the eagles will be gathered together.” Without being dogmatic on the meaning of this phrase, he notes that not only was Israel fit to be described as a carcass in 70 AD; being spiritually, politically, and judicially dead; but it was also a curious fact that the eagle was the principal figure on the Roman ensigns which were planted throughout the city of Jerusalem and finally in the temple itself.
In the preterist section of the book “Four Views on the Book of Revelation,” Kenneth Gentry points to another interesting detail recorded by Josephus (p. 81):
Christ is Israel’s ultimate judge (Matt. 24:29-30; 26:64); he is the one who makes war against her (Rev. 19:11; cf. Matt. 21:40-45; 22:1-7). He so severely judges her that her citizens receive no proper burial, being consumed by birds (Rev. 19:17-18). Robert Thomas well remarks: “The worst indignity perpetrated on a person in that culture was to be left unburied after death (cf. Ps. 79:2-3).” Josephus notes that the bodies of the dead in Jerusalem were “cast down from the walls into the valleys beneath” (Wars 5.12.3). Indeed, “those valleys [were] full of [unburied] dead bodies, and the thick putrefaction running about them” (Wars 5.12.4).
No doubt these thousands of unburied dead bodies would have been the very thing needed to attract “the birds that fly directly overhead.”
We would also do well to remember that Revelation 17:16 states that the 10 horns, along with the beast, would not only burn the prostitute with fire, but would also “devour her flesh.“
Verses 19-21: This passage briefly portrays one of the three judgments pronounced against the beast—the other two woes can be found in Rev. 13:10 and Rev. 16:10. In verse 20 we see that the beast is captured along with the false prophet, and thrown alive into the lake of fire. For a discussion of the identity of these two entities, which I propose to be Nero/the Roman Empire (the beast) and Judaism/Jewish leadership (the false prophet), please see this post on Revelation 13. It’s interesting that in verse 19 the beast is pictured with “the kings of the earth with their armies,” but in verse 20 the beast is captured along with “the false prophet.” Are the kings of “the earth” [which we have previously understood to be Israel/Palestine] and the false prophet meant to be seen as one and the same? The most important detail, though, is that they are captured because they had “gathered to make war against Him who was sitting on the horse and against His army” (verse 19).
I’m now prepared to see this particular detail as referring not to a physical battle, but rather to a spiritual one, namely the persecution of God’s people. We saw this same expression used in Revelation 17:12-14, where the ten kings joined the beast for one purpose: “They will make war on the Lamb, and the Lamb will conquer them, for He is Lord of lords and King of kings, and those with Him are called and chosen and faithful.” This speaks of persecution against the saints, for it clearly parallels two other Biblical accounts:  Acts 9:5, where Jesus took Saul’s persecution of the saints personally and said, “Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting Me?”  Revelation 13:5-7, where the beast was given authority to “make war on the saints and to conquer them” for 42 months (exactly what Nero did during his campaign of persecution from November 64 AD until his death in June 68 AD).
In this understanding, then, the capturing of the beast and the false prophet had everything to do with Christ and the Church overcoming the very agents that had persecuted the Church and had tried to stamp it out. By principle, the fulfillment of this passage need not be limited to the events of 70 AD. David S. Clark (a preterist), while seeing in this passage an application to the events of 70 AD, also summarizes his application of this text in the same way that a Historicist like Sam Storms would do (Gregg, p. 454):
But does the conquest of this rider on the white horse pertain only to the Roman Empire? Must we be ever dealing with things that are dead and buried centuries ago? Is there nothing in all this that touches and vitalizes the church of the present day? Or are we never to get beyond the dry dust of the catacombs? … Let the church remember that this rider on the white horse is the living Jesus, that He is in the forefront of every battle, that just as He conquered the beast and the false prophet, so He will conquer every enemy… The rider on the white horse is still riding on. Let the church follow, clothed in linen, clean and white.
All of our Revelation chapter-by-chapter studies, and any other posts related to the book of Revelation, can be found here.
 In earlier posts, we have noted that the phrase “the earth” (also properly translated as “land”) in Revelation is a frequent reference to Israel/Palestine (See, for example, the post on Revelation 1, where we examined the phrase “tribes of the earth” in verse 7, which is often thought to be worldwide in scope. When this prophecy is compared, though, to its counterpart in Zechariah 12:10-14, it’s clear that every one of those tribes belonged to the land of Israel).
 Sam Storms agrees that Scripture does not indicate a future battle in the plain of Megiddo, the ancient Canaanite stronghold, and that there is no such place as the Mountain of Megiddo (the literal rendering of Har-Magedon). Instead, being a Historicist, he sees “Armageddon” as “prophetic symbolism for the whole world in its collective defeat and judgment by Christ at his parousia. The imagery of war, of kings and nations doing battle on an all-too-familiar battlefield (Megiddo), is used as a metaphor of the consummate, cosmic, and decisive defeat by Christ of all his enemies (Satan, beast, false prophet, and all who bear the mark of the beast) on that final day.” He also sees each of the battles mentioned in Rev. 16:14, Rev. 19:19 and Rev. 20:8 as being one and the same. Do we view Rev. 19:11-21 and Rev. 20:7-10 as referring to the same historical battle? Hopefully this “Introduction to Revelation 20” and other posts on Rev. 20 will help to answer that question.
 Source: Kenneth Gentry, “Recapitulation v Progress.” This publication is a primer for a full-length, verse-by-verse commentary on Revelation which Gentry is currently working on. It’s the 13th among his Revelation Commentary Updates.